Criminal Victims, Victimized Criminals, or Both?
A Deeper Look at the Victim-Offender Overlap!!!
Offenders are more likely than non-offenders to be victims, and victims are more likely than non-victims to be offenders. The overlap between offenders and victims is not well understood in criminology, and in the economics of crime the stylized empirical fact is even widely ignored. The paper gives a survey of leading theoretical interpretations and empirical results.
It summarizes findings from criminology and focuses on economic explanations, where rational choice, behavioral economics, as well as bounded and ecological rationality are discussed. The paper presents new econometric evidence based on survey data covering victimization experiences and criminal activities. Using recursive bivariate Probit modeling, econometric results confirm that victimization depends on offending but not vice versa.
Among the joint covariates of the bivariate system, broken homes, criminal records of parents and personal indebtedness turn out as highly relevant factors of offending behavior, whereas individual victimization risks are significantly linked to education, employment and size of peer groups.
PAK and UAE Lawyers Online advising to ensure extension of special assistance and due care extended maximum assistance and priority to senior citizens, disabled and handicapped persons in using their Legal needs as far as possible in meeting their genuine requirements in order to alleviate their hardship.
“We Musalmans in general & young men in particular do not know the value of money. A paisa is saved today is two paisa tomorrow, four paisa after that & so on and so forth. Because of our Addiction to living beyond means and borrowing money we lost our sovereignty over this sub-continent”. Quaid—e—Azam in Ziarat—1948.
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Heroin @ Home — Rise of Opiate Use.
A resurgence of heroin use, complicated by prescription pain—killer abuse, has dramatically risen in the last few years. The consequences, including a number of overdose deaths, have devastated a range of communities across Pakistan.
Heroin – The Next Generation / Documentary Educational Video on YouTube. Excellent update. Drug abuse is 21 century challenge. War on terror is not big battle when we are fighting with drug addiction. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbfKzDYzDJw&feature=player_embedded
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